# SPSS Tutorials

BASICS REGRESSION T-TEST ANOVA CORRELATION

# Modulus (General Concept)

## Definition

The modulus is what's left of a given number after subtracting another given number from it as many times as possible.

## 1. SPSS Modulus Syntax Example

• In SPSS, the modulus is implemented as `mod(a,b)`. It returns the remainder of `a` after subtracting `b` from it as many times as possible.
• For instance, `mod(1234,100)` returns 34 since (12 * 100 =) 1200 can be extracted from 1234.
• The syntax below shows how to extract the last two digits from a number using the modulus function.
*1. Create Test Data.

data list free/number.
begin data
1
12
123
1234
12345
end data.

*2. Extract Last Two Digits.

compute last_two_digits=mod(number,100).
exe.

## 2. Python Modulus Example

• In Python, the modulus is implemented as `a % b`. As in SPSS, it returns the remainder of `a` after subtracting `b` from it as many times as possible.
• The syntax below shows how to identify odd and even numbers using the modulus in Python.
*Inspect whether numbers from random sample are odd or even.

begin program.
import random
mySample = random.sample(range(10),5)
for i in mySample:
if i % 2 == 0:
print str(i) + " is an even number"
else:
print str(i) + " is an odd number"
end program.

# Let me know what you think!

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# This tutorial has 1 comment!

• ### By Aviad on August 28th, 2016

What about mod(-16, 24) => 8?
I recommned that the negative usage, in this example calculating sleep hours between 23 (11pm) and 7am be mentioned as well.