# SPSS tutorials

BASICS REGRESSION T-TEST ANOVA CORRELATION

# SPSS IF – A Quick Tutorial

In SPSS, IF is a conditional COMPUTE command. It calculates a (possibly new) variable but only for those cases that satisfy some condition(s). This tutorial walks you through some typical examples of the IF command.

## Example 1 - Replace Missing Values

With the syntax below we'll first create some test data. Next we'll set the existing variable score to 100 for all respondents (only one in this case) having a missing value on score. An alternative here is RECODE score (missing = 100). The effect becomes visible after sorting the cases in a more conventient way.This is because IF is technically a transformation.

## SPSS IF Syntax Example 1

*1. Create test data.

data list free/gender score.
begin data
0 80 1 85 0 90 1 95 0 '' 1 105 0 110 1 115
end data.

*2. Replace missing value with 100.

if missing(score) score = 100.

*3. Sort cases.

sort cases gender.

## Example 2 - Score Groups

Next, we'll create score groups. Respondents scoring under 100 points get a 1 (‘low score’). The others get a 2 (‘high score’). We'll demonstrate three ways to do so. The third may seem a little weird. It's explained in Compute A = B = C.

## SPSS IF Syntax Example 2

*1. Create score groups option 1.

if score lt 100 group_a = 1.
if score ge 100 group_a = 2.
exe.

*2. Create score groups option 2.

recode score (100 thru hi = 2) (else = 1) into group_b.
exe.

*3. Create score groups option 3.

compute group_c = (score ge 100) + 1.
exe.

## Example 3 - Gender-Score Groups

Now we'll create score groups for female and male respondents separately. At this point we can't use a simple RECODE anymore. This is because the conditions now involve two variables, gender and score. A simple approach here is using four IF statements. Each holds two conditions (gender and score). A faster but more difficult equivalent here is a single COMPUTE command.

## SPSS IF Syntax Example 3

*1. Gender-score groups option 1.

if score lt 100 and gender eq 0 group_d = 1.
if score ge 100 and gender eq 0 group_d = 2.
if score lt 100 and gender eq 1 group_d = 3.
if score ge 100 and gender eq 1 group_d = 4.
exe.

*2. Gender-score groups option 2.

compute group_e = 2 * gender + (score ge 100) + 1.
exe.

## Difference Between IF and DO IF

Very similar to the IF commands we showed is DO IF-ELSE IF-END IF. Apart from the latter usually requiring more syntax, there's an important difference between the two. This occurs when conditions are not mutually exclusive. This means that a single case may satisfy two or more conditions simultaneously. In this case, the following happens

• With IF the last condition that holds prevails. Since IF statements are completely separate commands, later ones simply overwrite the results of previous ones.
• With DO IF-ELSE IF-END IF the first condition that holds prevails. The trick is in ELSE IF. The “ELSE” here means “if the preceding condition(s) don't hold, only then...

The final syntax example demonstrates this difference between IF and DO IF-ELSE IF-END IF.

## SPSS IF Syntax Example 4

*1. Three score groups with DO-IF.

compute group_f = 1.
do if score ge 100.
compute group_f = 3.
else if score ge 90.
compute group_f = 2.
end if.

*2. Sort cases.

sort cases score.

*3. Equivalent IF statements don't work.

compute group_g = 1.
if score ge 100 group_g = 3.
if score ge 90 group_g = 2.
exe.

# Let me know what you think!

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# This tutorial has 36 comments

• ### By Nicholas Michalak on August 24th, 2016

I love how SPSS syntax appears on your website. How do you generate the html that makes it? Thank you!

• ### By Ruben Geert van den Berg on May 25th, 2016

Hi Peter!

Your syntax looks fine and when I ran it, all was good. Could the problem be in a line before/after the one you posted? Or could you perhaps run

`set printback on.`

and rerun the problem syntax and send me the surrounding output including the command itself?

• ### By Peter on May 24th, 2016

Hi Ruben
IF Region="AUCKLAND REGION" AND AgeGroup="45-64" Weighting=1.26
with or without a "." generates "expression ends unexpectedly". What am I doing wrong?

• ### By Ruben Geert van den Berg on May 14th, 2016

Hi Sloan!

A simple approach is using DATEDIFF in an IF command in a DO REPEAT command. For a working example, see SPSS - Comparing Date Variables Example. Perhaps you can edit it according to your needs.

Keep in mind that DATEDIFF truncates it outcomes: somebody who's 25 years and 364 days old, will be assigned 25 (years). I think that won't be a problem regarding your question but please do keep this in mind.

Hope that helps!

SPSS - Comparing Date Variables Example

• ### By Sloan on May 13th, 2016

I have waves of data and I want to create a variable of the wave at which a subject is a certain age. For example all subjects with data at age 26 come from one of the waves (1-12), I would like to have a variable "index wave" which includes the number of the wave at which the subject was 26. Suggestions welcome!